Location: Norway, North Sea
Start Date: 1996
Size: 0.9 Mt/yr
CO2 Source: Gas processing
Storage: Utsira Formation. A deep saline reservoir 800-1000 meters (2600-3300ft) below the sea floor
The Sleipner CO2 gas processing and capture unit was built in order to evade the 1991 Norwegian CO2 tax. Sleipner obtains CO2 credit for the injected CO2 and does not pay the tax.
Sleipner was the world's first commercial CO2 storage project. The natural gas produced from the Sleipner West field contains up to 9% CO2, however, in order to meet the required export specifications and the customers requirements, this has to be reduced to a maximum of 2.5%. The CO2 is removed from the produced hydrocarbons at an offshore platform before being pumped back into the ground and the hydrocarbons piped to land. Had this process not been adopted, and the CO2 produced been allowed to escape to the atmosphere, the licensees of the Sleipner West field would have had to pay NOK 1 million/day in Norwegian CO2 taxes. In may 2008 Statoil had stored over 10 million tons of CO2. There is no evidence of CO2 leakage and the CO2 remains in situ. CO2 capture is done using amine technology. Injection currently costs $17 US/Ton CO2.
The Utsria Formation is a 200-250 meters thick massive sandstone. It is estimated that the Utsira Formation is capable of storing 600 billion tons of CO2. 3D seismic monitoring of the CO2 injection into the Utsira Formation shows that there is no leakage of the CO2 into other horizons.
Around 15.5 million tonnes of CO2 have been injected since the project started to June 2015.
Project Link: Sleipner Project website
Other Sources and Press Releases:
Statoil wins leadership in new energy award (July 2015)
Successful CO2 storage in Utsira Formation (March 2009)
Storing 10 million tonnes of CO2 ( May 2008)
Geophysical monitoring of the CO2 plume at Sleipner [PDF] (February 2004)