Company/Alliance: GDF Suez E&P Nederland B.V. and TNO
Location: 150 km NW of Amsterdam, Netherlands's North Sea
Start Date: 2004
Size: 0.2 Mt/yr
CO2 Source: Gas processing (The gas produced from the field has a 13% CO2 content)
Storage: The Rotliegende Sandstone reservoir located at a depth of about 3800 meters
Scale Up: Increase project size to 310,000 to 475,000 tons/year. This has not occured.
The project's motivation is because the export pipeline specifications does not allow such a high percentage of CO2, and therefore there is the need to remove the CO2 before piping the gas onshore.
K12-B is the first site in the world where CO2 is being injected into the same reservoir from which it was produced as part of the natural gas. This project is 90% funded by the Government of the Netherlands. Its main objective is to test CO2 storage. This project is using tracers for the evaluation of re-produced CO2. This project is also known as part of the CRUST program. Launched by the Dutch government in 2002, CRUST aims to make an inventory of possible sequestration sites, to study legal and environmental aspects and the possibilities for CO2 re-use.
The project is being carried out in 3 phases: Phase 1: The feasibility study where first costs estimates indicated that the costs for a full-scale injection will range between € 5-10 per ton of CO2. Phase 2: The pilot study where in 2004-5, 2 tests of CO2 injection into the reservoir were made and CO2 injection tracers were used to trace the migration pathways. Phase 3: The scale-up to subsequent industrial phase where the injection potential is about 310,000 to 475,000 tons/year of CO2.
Project Link: K12-B Project website is no longer available